Diastolic hypertension is also called isolated diastolic hypertension or IHD. Some healthcare professionals feel more comfortable removing the isolated prefix because they fear it will minimize HDI and its impact on health. Although the earliest isolated systolic blood pressure (ISH) is clinically recognized as a subgroup of hypertension, this is not the case for diastolic hypertension. Nevertheless, studies show that TDI is an emerging problem in developing countries. There are a few points that need to be clarified in a detailed review of fascinating scientific studies on diastolic hypertension.
What is the HDI?
If you are still alive, as we assume you are reading this, your heart performs two heart actions that are used to measure your blood pressure.
Systolic blood pressure is measured when the heart beats (when the heart muscles contract). Diastolic blood pressure is measured between heart beats (when the heart muscles relax). In the case of diastolic pressure, the blood is reinserted into the heart and prepared for pumping (systolic). If you put your hand on your heart now, there will be a moment of silence where there is no beating. Then there is the diastolic blood pressure, which is also measured.
The HDI is by definition present when diastolic blood pressure is greater than 90 mmHg and systolic blood pressure is lower than 140 mmHg.
Normal blood pressure – with a diastolic blood pressure of less than 80 mmHg and a systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mmHg.
Systolic blood pressure is the upper number and diastolic blood pressure is the lower number.
For people who are normally invasive or have a normal blood pressure, normal blood pressure values are less than 120/80 mmHg.
Most worrying for hypertension researchers is the rise of the true extent of the widespread use of HDI among ordinary people, like all of these people here.
Some studies confirm that the prevalence of HDI is steadily increasing in the general population.
According to the famous Framingham Heart Study of Diastolic and Systolic Hypertension, published in 2005 in the journal Circulation (8 March 2005; 111(9):1121-7), diastolic hypertension was more common among young people under the age of 40 than systolic diastolic hypertension (DHH).
ADHD occurs when systolic and diastolic blood pressure together have high values.
The third National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) III, covering the period 1988-1991, found diastolic hypertension to be more common in people under the age of 40 and proportional to the prevalence of systolic-diastolic hypertension in people aged 40-49. Of the adults you were, most were men.
Moreover, more than 75% of young people with untreated hypertension have IDH and IBH.
Two independent studies have provided comparable results on the prevalence of IDDTs in the population.
Causes of diastolic hypertension and risk factors
Kidney problems have been associated with possible causes of increased diastolic pressure.
In particular, renal hypertension is associated with HDI because of the role the kidneys play in releasing hormones that regulate blood pressure.
Primary hyperaldosteronism, also known as Conn’s syndrome, has also been mentioned as another possible cause of diastolic hypertension.
As with renal hypertension, primary hyperaldosterone is thought to induce the secretion of aldosterone, a hormone that in turn stimulates the kidneys to store sodium, which increases blood volume and leads to higher blood pressure.
According to Patient Info, diastolic hypertension is also a symptom of mushroom intoxication, especially the magic mushroom.
The Framingham Heart Study identified smoking, alcohol consumption, weight gain, overweight and obesity as powerful risk factors that make people susceptible to future diastolic hypertension.
A 2012 study published in the Indian Heart Journal (2012 Jul; 64(4): 374-379) confirmed the results of Framingham’s heart research and showed that predictors of diastolic hypertension are the young age, body mass index (BMI) and the male. Insufficient exercise is also a common risk factor for elevated diastolic blood pressure.
Although salt has been shown to be associated with high blood pressure, Indian Heart Journal researchers found no link between sodium intake and isolated systolic hypertension.
In addition, the researchers found that people with HDI are at risk of developing a diastolic hypertension into a systolic-diastolic hypertension or simply a chronic hypertension.
Another study from 2007, published in JASH, Journal of the American Society of Hypertension (2007 Jan-Feb;1(1):82-93), agrees with Indian researchers who say that people with diastolic hypertension have an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the future.
It is interesting to note that a 2015 study of isolated risk factors for diastolic hypertension in Chinese society in Anhui Province, conducted by Chinese researchers and published in the International Journal of Environmental and Public Health Research (12(4), 4395-4405), showed that a family history of hypertension, high triglyceride levels, high-density lipoproteins, high blood sugar and green tea consumption are risk factors for HDI.
Surprisingly, green tea, as well as other flavanol-rich foods and drinks such as dark chocolate, was one of the herbs that could effectively lower blood pressure.
The study also showed that high diastolic blood pressure entails a very low risk of cardiovascular death. However, the HDI has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and also to increase the risk of coronary arteries in young Chinese.
In general, activity and weight loss should be part of individual goals, as well as broader oral health education programs as a means to address the HDI’s modifiable risk factors, researchers from all over the world have found.
This will reduce the future prevalence of isolated diastolic blood pressure and the resulting increase in cardiovascular disease.
Symptoms of diastolic hypertension
High blood pressure is known to occur without easily perceptible symptoms. This leads to the conclusion that it is an asymptomatic state.
If a person’s blood pressure values have not been measured, there may not be a real way to determine it. That’s one of the reasons this state is still called the silent killer.
The many studies on diastolic hypertension that we have read and analyzed have been largely silent on all known or observable symptoms of hypertension.
Hypothyroidism has been identified in some medical texts on advanced hypertension as strongly associated with elevated diastolic hypertension. In theory, hypothyroidism itself can be an indicator of elevated diastolic blood pressure because of this correlation.
Similarly, kidney failure, also known as renal failure, can be an indicator of diastolic hypertension.
According to Dr Saputo of DoctorSaputo.com, increased diastolic pressure can lead to kidney failure. Kidney failure is a kidney function caused by poor circulation of blood to the kidneys.
However, since diastolic hypertension remains a hypertensive disorder but is a subspecies, other signs and symptoms of hypertension often associated with hypertension in general should be considered.
These symptoms are neither specific nor convincing, as the same symptoms can be caused by other underlying diseases that are not at all related to hypertension. If this is the case, the symptoms usually disappear when the underlying disease is treated.
It is important to emphasize once again the indispensable role of regular blood pressure measurements.
Below is a list of some known symptoms associated with hypertension, which, as mentioned earlier, are not always conclusive.
(It is also important to mention that these symptoms are usually accompanied by severe hypertension. This means that blood pressure values will be at a very dangerous level at the start)
- Heart rate
- blurred vision
- Night sweats and excessive perspiration
- Sleeping problems
Possible complications of diastolic hypertension
The good news is that diastolic hypertension is a reversible risk factor for several diseases, some of which are fatal. It is therefore important to take care of him after he has been properly diagnosed.
Although the complications of HDI can be stopped by taking certain measures, such as lifestyle changes, the complications of diastolic hypertension can occur indirectly.
Unlike systolic hypertension, diastolic blood pressure does not increase with age. This limits possible direct complications.
The complications identified in science from the HDI are the possible progression to isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) or systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDA). Systolic hypertension is a predictor of diabetes, stroke and heart failure in addition to other possible complications of cardiovascular disease.
In Canada, a study was conducted to determine whether diastolic hypertension is an independent risk factor for stroke. According to a study published in the American Journal of Hypertension in 1997 (1997 Jun;10(6):634-9), systolic blood pressure is higher and a better predictor of stroke than diastolic blood pressure.
Treatment of diastolic hypertension and pharmacotherapy
The treatment and therapy of diastolic hypertension generally follows the existing guidelines for the treatment of hypertension.
This is because HDI is a form of hypertension that is only discussed in relation to the sub-type of hypertension.
Returning to the studies already mentioned: Hypertension researchers are concerned that diastolic hypertension can be converted into isolated systolic blood pressure or into systolic-diastolic hypertension depending on a person’s age.
In 2010, Dr. John Graves, a physician specializing in petroleum and hypertension at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, advised a good old-fashioned lifestyle change to reduce diastolic pressure.
Dr. Graves emphasized that, in addition to the main medical causes of increased diastolic pressure, the only measures required are dietary changes, such as maintaining a low-sodium diet, quitting smoking and alcohol, adopting an active lifestyle and maintaining a healthy weight.
The treatment of diastolic hypertension with anti-hypertensives does not seem to be fully developed yet.
An article in the Journal of Clinical Hypertension (5: 411-413) of November 2003 illustrates the dilemma of whether increased diastolic pressure should be treated with conventional drugs.
The researchers who published the report are concerned about the historical and ongoing problems in accurately measuring isolated diastolic hypertension compared to isolated systolic hypertension.
The study suggests that anti-hypertensive treatment should not be used at the same time in people with high diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure below 140 mmHg.
A study published in 1999 in the Journal of Human Hypertension (1999 November;13(11):725-7) ultimately contained four simple pragmatic rules for controlling hypertension, as he called it.
If this rule is to be followed, high diastolic blood pressure values cannot be used for treatment decisions and therefore pharmacological treatment in patients with high diastolic blood pressure is not justified.
Caution when measuring the HDI on a home blood pressure monitor
A number of studies have reported the limitations associated with measuring diastolic blood pressure with blood pressure monitors for home use.
Blood pressure monitors for home use the oscillometric method.
These are all systems known to many home users where automatic cuffs are inflated.
The electronic pressure sensor then reads the numerical values of the blood pressure, both systolic and diastolic.
The result of this method is that the values measured at home differ from the values measured in the clinic. Due to the shortcomings of this system, performance at home is generally lower than at work.
This means that measurements at home hide high diastolic blood pressure, resulting in late detection unless someone goes to the doctor’s reading room for a professional lecture.
It also means that if the measurement at home indicated an LDI, it would be in higher values than the measurement at home.